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全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语模拟试题预测试卷  

2009-05-31 15:50:11|  分类: 分享篇 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Section I  Use of English

Part A

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

 

The basic function of money is the enable buying to be separated from selling, thus permitting trade to take place without the socalled double coincidence of barter. If a person has something to sell and wants something else 1 return, it is not necessary to search for someone able and 2to make the desired exchange of items. The person can sell the 3 item for general purchasing power—that is, “money”—to anyone who wants to buy it and then use the proceeds to buy the desired item from anyone who wants to sell it.

The importance of this function of money is 4 illustrated by the experience of Germany just after World War Ⅱ, 5 paper money was 6 largely useless because, despite inflationary conditions, price controls were effectively 7 by the American, French, and British armies of occupation. People had to8 to barter or to inefficient money substitutes. The result was to cut total output of the economy in half. The German “economic miracle” just after 1948 reflected partly a currency reform by the occupation authorities, 9 some economists hold that it stemmed primarily from the German government’s 10 of all price controls, 11 permitting a money economy to 12 a barter economy.

13 of the act of sale from the act of purchase 14 the existence of something that will be generally accepted in payment—this is the “15 of exchange” function of money. But there must also be something that can serve as a 16 abode of purchasing power, in which the seller holds the proceeds in the interim 17 the first sale and the 18 purchase, or from which the buyer can 19the general purchasing power with which to pay 20  what is bought. This is the “asset” function of money.

 

1. [A] on                        [B] in                            [C] by                      [D] for

2. [A] capable                     [B] likely                  [C] desirable           [D] willing

3. [A] excess                  [B] extra                  [C] surplus              [D] ample

4. [A] dramatically          [B] urgently             [C] faithfully             [D] incidentally

5. [A] when                    [B] before                     [C] since                  [D] until

6. [A] developed            [B] reserved            [C] rendered           [D] imagined

7. [A] encouraged              [B] enlarged             [C] endured               [D] enforced

8. [A] conform                     [B] resort                  [C] commit              [D] gear

9. [A] and                           [B] but                     [C] therefore            [D] however

10. [A] deprivation              [B] stimulation              [C] elimination               [D] restriction

11. [A] thereby                   [B] therefore            [C] then                   [D] while

12. [A] alternate            [B] establish            [C] substitute           [D] replace

13. [A] Introduction             [B] Specification      [C] Representation       [D] Separation

14. [A] assumes            [B] requires             [C] focuses              [D] undertakes

15. [A] medium              [B] function              [C] role                    [D] nature

16. [A] fashionable             [B] favorable           [C] temporary          [D] token

17. [A] both                   [B] for                      [C] between             [D] after

18. [A] consequent             [B] relevant             [C] inadequate             [D] subsequent

19. [A] execute              [B] extract                     [C] exceed                   [D] exchange

20. [A] for                      [B] off                      [C] back                  [D] in

 

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

 

Text 1

Two related paradoxes also emerge from the same basic conception of the aesthetic experience. The first was given extended consideration by Hegel, who argued roughly as follows: our sensuous attention and that gives to the work of art its peculiar individuality. Because it addresses itself to our sensory appreciation, the work of art is essentially concrete, to be understood by an act of perception rather than by a process of discursive thought.

At the same time, our understanding of the work of art is in part intellectual; we seek in it a conceptual content, which it presents to us in the form of an idea. One purpose of critical interpretation is to expound this idea in discursive form—to give the equivalent of the content of the work of art in another, nonsensuous idiom. But criticism can never succeed in this task, for, by separating the content from the particular form, it abolishes its individuality. The content presented then ceases to be the exact content of that work of art. In losing its individuality, the content loses its aesthetic reality; it thus ceases to be a reason for attending to the particular work and that first attracted our critical attention. It cannot be this that we saw in the original work and that explained its power over us.

For this content, displayed in the discursive idiom of the critical intellect, is no more than a husk, a discarded relic of a meaning that eluded us in the act of seizing it. If the content is to be the true object of aesthetic interest, it must remain wedded to its individuality: it cannot be detached from its “sensuous embodiment” without being detached from itself. Content is, therefore, inseparable from form and form in turn inseparable from content. (It is the form that it is only by virtue of the content that it embodies.)

Hegel’s argument is the archetype of many, all aimed at showing that it is both necessary to distinguish form from content and also impossible to do so. This paradox may be resolved by rejecting either of its premises, but, as with Kant’s antinomy, neither premise seems dispensable. To suppose that content and form are inseparable is, in effect, to dismiss both ideas as illusory, since no two works of art can then share either a content or a form-the form being definitive of each work’s individuality.

In this case, no one could ever justify his interest in a work of art by reference to its meaning. The intensity of aesthetic interest becomes a puzzling, and ultimately inexplicable, feature of our mental life. If, on the other hand, we insist that content and form are separable, we shall never be able to find, through a study of content, the reason for attending to the particular work of art that intrigues us. Every work of art stands proxy for its paraphrase. An impassable gap then opens between aesthetic experience and its ground, and the claim that aesthetic experience is intrinsically valuable is thrown in doubt.

 

21. Hegel argued that .

[A] it is our sensuous appreciation that gives peculiar individuality to the work of art

[B] it is the content of the work of art that holds our attention

[C] the work of art cannot be understood without a process of logical thinking

[D] the form of the work of art is what our sensuous appreciation concentrates on

22. It can be inferred from this passage that .

[A] the paradox that it is both necessary to distinguish form content and also impossible to do so cannot be resolved by rejecting its premises

[B] both content and form of the work of art are illusory

[C] the content and form of the work of art are separable

[D] aesthetic experience is not intrinsically valuable

23. Which of the following is NOT what Hegel believed?

[A] The content and form of the work of art cannot be separated from each other.

[B] The content of the work of art is always the true object of aesthetic interest.

[C] The content presented without any individuality is not the content of the work of art.

[D] The content understood by means of a process of discursive thought is no more than a husk.

24. Premises that are related to each other seems to be dispensable because .

[A] Kant thinks they are indispensable

[B] either of them can resolve the paradox

[C] the premises are separated

[D] the premises can account for the theory

25. This passage is mainly about .

[A] the sensuous appreciation of art

[B] the basic conception of the aesthetic experience

[C] how to appreciate the work of art

[D] the relationship between form and content of the work of art

 

Text 2

Every country with a monetary system of its own has to have some kind of market in which dealers in bills, notes, and other forms of short term credit can buy and sell. The“money market” is a set of institutions or arrangements for handling what might be called wholesale transactions in money and short term credit. The need for such facilities arises in much the same way that a similar need does in connection with the distribution of any of the products of a diversified economy to their final users at the retail level. If the retailer is to provide reasonably adequate service to his customers, he must have active contacts with others who specialize in making or handling bulk quantities of whatever is his stock in trade. The money market is made up of specialized facilities of exactly this kind. It exists for the purpose of improving the ability of the retailers of financial services—commercial banks, savings institutions, investment houses, lending agencies, and even governments—to do their job. It has little if any contact with the individuals or firms who maintain accounts with these various retailers or purchase their securities or borrow from them.

The elemental functions of a money market must be performed in any kind of modern economy, even one that is largely planned or socialist, but the arrangements in socialist countries do not ordinarily take the form of a market. Money markets exist in countries that use market processes rather than planned allocations to distribute most of their primary resources among alternative uses. The general distinguishing feature of a money market is that it relies upon open competition among those who are bulk suppliers of funds at any particular time and among those seeking bulk funds, to work out the best practicable distribution of the existing total volume of such funds.

In their market transactions, those with bulk supplies of funds or demands for them, rely on groups of intermediaries who act as brokers or dealers. The characteristics of these middlemen, the services they perform, and their relationship to other parts of the financial vary widely from country to country. In many countries there is no single meeting place where the middlemen get together, yet in most countries the contacts among all participants are sufficiently open and free to assure each supplier or user of funds that he will get or pay a price that fairly reflects all of the influences (including his own) that are currently affecting the whole supply and the whole demand. In nearly all cases, moreover, the unifying force of competition is reflected at any given moment in a common price (that is, rate of interest) for similar transactions. Continuous fluctuations in the money market rates of interest result from changes in the pressure of available supplies of funds upon the market and in the pull of current demands upon the market.

 

26. The first paragraph is mainly about .

A. the definition of money market

B. the constitution of a money market

C. the basic functions of a money market

D. the general feature of a money market

27. According to this passage, the money market .

A. provides convenient services to its customers

B. has close contact with the individuals or firms seeking funds

C. maintains accounts with various retailers of financial services

D. is made up of institutions who specialize in handling wholesale monetary transactions

28. Which of the following statements concerning money market is not true according to this passage?

A. Money market does not exist in planned economies.

B. Money market has been established in some socialist countries.

C. Money market encourages open competition among bulk suppliers of funds.

D. Money market relies upon market processes to distribute funds to final users.

29. The author uses the example of middleman to show .

A. market transactions are important in different countries

B. dealers are needed in doing business

C. middlemen can play great role in different transactions and different countries.

D. middlemen in different countries have different actions in business.

30. According to this passage, .

A. brokers usually perform the same kinds of services to their customers

B. brokers have little contact with each other

C. open competition tends to result in a common price for similar transactions at any given moment

D. changes in the pressure of available supplies of funds upon market tends to maintain a common price for similar transactions

Text 3

Environmental issues raise a host of difficult ethical questions, including the ancient one of the nature of intrinsic value. Whereas many philosophers in the past have agreed that human experiences have intrinsic value and the utilitarians at least have always accepted that the pleasures and pains of nonhuman animals are of some intrinsic significance, this does not show why it is so bad if dodos become extinct or a rain forest is cut down. Are these things to be regretted only because of the loss to humans or other sentient creatures? Or is there more to it than that? Some philosophers are now prepared to defend the view that trees, rivers, species (considered apart from the individual animals of which they consist), and perhaps ecological systems as a whole have a value independent of the instrumental value they may have for humans or other sentient creatures.

Our concern for the environment also raises the question of our obligations to future generations. How much do we owe to the future? From a social contract view of ethics or for the ethical egoist, the answer would seem to be: nothing. For we can benefit them, but they are unable to reciprocate. Most other ethical theories, however, do give weight to the interests of coming generations. Utilitarians, for one, would not think that the fact that members of future generations do not exist yet is any reason for giving less consideration to their interests than we give to our own, provided only that we are certain that they will exist and will have interests that will be affected by what we do. In the case of, say, the storage of radioactive wastes, it seems clear that what we do will indeed affect the interests of generations to come.

The question becomes much more complex, however, when we consider that we can affect the size of future generations by the population policies we choose and the extent to which we encourage large or small families. Most environmentalists believe that the world is already dangerously overcrowded. This may well be so, but the notion of overpopulation conceals a philosophical issue that is ingeniously explored by Derek Parfit in Reasons and Persons (1984). What is optimum population? Is it that population size at which the average level of welfare will be as high as possible? Or is it the size at which the total amount of welfare—the average multiplied by the number of people—is as great as possible? Both answers lead to counterintuitive outcomes, and the question remains one of the most baffling mysteries in applied ethics.

 

31. The first paragraph is mainly about .

[A] the intrinsic value of human experiences

[B] the intrinsic value of the experiences of nonhuman animals

[C] the intrinsic value of ecological system as a whole

[D] an ancient ethical question about the nature of intrinsic value

32. , we owe nothing to the future generations.

[A] In the author’s opinion

[B] From a social contrast view of ethics

[C] For a utilitarian

[D] For most environmentalists

33. Population policy we take should be considered .

[A] positive            [B] negative           [C] complex           [D] reasonable

34. According to this passage, optimum population .

[A] refers to the population size at which the average level of welfare will be as high as possible

[B] refers to the population size at which the total amount of welfare will be as great as possible

[C] is a difficult philosophical issue which remains to be resolved in the future

[D] is a difficult philosophical issue which Derek Parfit has successfully settled in Reasons and Persons

35. The proper title for this passage should be .

[A] A Mystery in Applied Ethics

[B] Our Obligations to Future Generations

[C] Environmental Ethics

[D] Environmental issues

 

Text 4

Perhaps only a small boy training to be a wizard at the Hogwarts school of magic could cast a spell so powerful as to create the biggest book launch ever. Wherever in the world the clock strikes midnight on June 20th, his followers will flock to get their paws on one of more than 10m copies of “Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix”. Bookshops will open in the middle of the night and delivery firms are drafting in extra staff and bigger trucks. Related toys, games, DVDs and other merchandise will be everywhere. There will be no escaping Pottermania.

Yet Mr Potter’s world is a curious one, in which things are often not what they appear. While an excitable media (hereby including The Economist, happy to support such a fine example of globalisation) is helping to hype the launch of J.K. Rowling’s fifth novel, about the most adventurous thing that the publishers (Scholastic in America and Britain’s Bloomsbury in English elsewhere) have organised is a reading by Ms Rowling in London’s Royal Albert Hall, to be broadcast as a live webcast. Hollywood, which owns everything else to do with Harry Potter, says it is doing even less. Incredible as it may seem, the guardians of the brand say that, to protect the Potter franchise, they are trying to maintain a low profile. Well, relatively low.

Ms Rowling signed a contract in 1998 with Warner Brothers, part of AOL Time Warner, giving the studio exclusive film, licensing and merchandising rights in return for what now appears to have been a steal: some $500,000. Warner licenses other firms to produce goods using Harry Potter characters or images, from which Ms Rowling gets a big enough cut that she is now wealthier than the queen—if you believe Britain’s Sunday Times rich list. The process is selfgenerating: each book sets the stage for a film, which boosts book sales, which lifts sales of Potter products.

Globally, the first four Harry Potter books have sold some 200m copies in 55 languages; the two movies have grossed over $1.8 billion at the box office. This is a stunning success by any measure, especially as Ms Rowling has long demanded that Harry Potter should not be over commercialised. In line with her wishes, Warner says it is being extraordinarily careful, at least by Hollywood standards, about what it licenses and to whom. It imposed tough conditions on Coca Cola, insisting that no Harry Potter images should appear on cans, and is now in the process of making its licensing programme even more restrictive. Coke may soon be considered too mass market to carry the brand at all.

The deal with Warner ties much of the merchandising to the films alone. There are no officially sanctioned products relating to “Order of the Phoenix”; nor yet for “Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban”, the film of the third book, which is due out in June 2004. Warner agrees that Ms Rowling’s creation is a different sort of commercial property, one with long-term potential that could be damaged by a typical Hollywood marketing blitz, says Diane Nelson, the studio’s global brand manager for Harry Potter. It is vital, she adds, that with more to come, readers of the books are not alienated. “The evidence from our market research is that enthusiasm for the property by fans is not waning.”

 

36. When the author says “there will be no escaping Potter mania”, he implies that .

[A] Harry Potter’s appeal for the readers is simply irresistible

[B] it is somewhat irrational to be so crazy about the magic boy

[C] craze about Harry Potter will not be over in the near future

[D] Hogwarts school of magic will be the biggest attraction world over

37. Ms Rowling’s reading in London’s Royal Albert Hall is mentioned to show .

[A] publishers are really adventurous in managing the Potter’s business

[B] businesses are actually more credible than media in Potter’s world

[C] the media are promoting Pottermania more actively than Hollywood

[D] businesses involved with Potter are moving along in an unusual way

38. The author believes that .

[A] Britain’s Sunday Times rich list is not very convincing as it sounds

[B] Time Warner’s management of licenses is a bit over commercialised

[C] other firms may produce goods using Harry Potter images at will

[D] what Ms Rowling got in return for her offering to Warner is a real bargain

39. Paragraph 4 intends mainly to show Warner’s .

[A] determination to promote Potter

[B] consistence in conducting busines

[C] high regard for Ms Rowling’s request

[D] careful restrictions on licensing to Coco-Cola

40. It can be concluded from the last paragraph that .

[A] products of Potter films have brought enormous profits to Warner

[B] current Hollywood’s marketing of Potter may damage its potential

[C] readers could get tired of Ms Rowling’s writings sooner or later

[D] Warner will maintain the same strategy with Potter in future

 

Part B

Sample 1

Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points). 

Large, multinational corporations may be the companies whose ups and downs seize headlines. (41) Small businesses, defined as those with fewer than 100 workers, now employ 60 percent of the workforce and expected to generate half of all new jobs between now and the year 2,000.(42)

Too many of these pioneers, however, will blaze ahead unprepared. Idealists will overestimate the clamor for their products or fail to factor in the competition. (43). Midcareer executives, forced by a takeover or a restructuring to quit the corporation and find another way to support themselves, may save the idea of being their own boss but may forget that entrepreneurs must also. at least for a while, be bookkeepers and receptionists, too.(44) By 1995, more than 60 of those 100 startups, 77 percent of the companies surveyed were still alive. Most credited their success in large part to having picked a business they already were comfortable in Eighty percent had worked with the same product or service in their last jobs.

Thinking through an enterprise before the launch is obviously critical.(45) you must tenderly monitor its pulse, in their zeal, to expand. Small business owners often ignore early warning signs of a stagnant market or of decaying profitability. They hopefully four more and more into the enterprise, preferring not to acknowledge eroding profit margins that means the market for their ingenious service or product has evaporated, or that they must cut the payroll or vacate their lavish offices.

To snatch opportunity, you must spot the signals that it is time to conquer the new markets, add products or perhaps franchise your hot ideas.

 

[A]Only when the financial well runs dry do they see the seriousness of the illness, and by then the patient is usually too far gone to save.

[B]But many entrepreneurs forget that a firm’s health in its infancy may be little indication of how well it will age .

[C]Frequent checks of your firm’s vital signs will also guide you to a sensible rate of growth.

[D]Some 1.2 million small forms have opened their doors over the past 6 years of economic growth, and 1989 will see an additional 200,000 entrepreneurs striking off on their own.

[E]According to small Business Administration data, 24 of every 100 businesses starting out today are likely to disappear in two years, and 27 more will have shut their doors four years from now.

[F]But to a far greater extent than most Americans realize, the economy’s vitality depends on the fortunes of tiny shops and restaurants, neighborhood services and are factories.

[G]Nearly everyone will underestimate, often fatally, the capital that success requires

 

Sample 2

Directions:The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order.For questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragrphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

 

[A]Chaste women are often proud and froward, as presuming upon the merit of their chastity. It is one of the best bonds, both of chastity and obedience, in the wife, if she think her husband wise; which she will never do, if she find him jealous.

[B]He that has wife and children has given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief. Certainly the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men; which both in affection and means, have married and endowed the public. Yet it were great reason that those that have children, should have greatest care of future times; unto which they know they must transmit their dearest pledges.

[C]Certainly wife and children are a kind of discipline of humanity; and single men, though they may be many times more charitable, because their means are less exhaust, yet, on the other side, they are more cruel and hardhearted (good to make severe inquisitors), because their tenderness is not so oft called upon. Grave natures, led by custom, and therefore constant, are commonly loving husbands, as was said of Ulysses。

[D]But the most ordinary cause of a single life, is liberty, especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, which are so sensible of every restraint, as they will go near to think their girdles and garters, to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best friends, best masters, best servants; but not always best subjects; for they are light to run away; and almost all fugitives, are of that condition.

[E]Some there are, who though they lead a single life, yet their thoughts do end with themselves, and account future times impertinences. There are some other, that account wife and children, but as bills of charges. There are some foolish rich covetous men, that take a pride, in having no children, because they may be thought so much the richer. For perhaps they have heard some talk, Such an one is a great rich man, and another except to it, Yea, but he has a great charge of children; as if it were an abatement to his riches.

[F]Wives are young men’s mistresses; companions for middle age; and old men’s nurses. So as a man may have a quarrel to marry, when he will. But yet he was reputed one of the wise men, that made answer to the question, when a man should marry, —A young man not yet, an elder man not at all. It is often seen that bad husbands, have very good wives; whether it be, that it raiseth the price of their husband’s kindness, when it comes; or that the wives take a pride in their patience. But this never fails, if the bad husbands were of their own choosing, against their friends consent; for then they will be sure to make good their own folly.

[G]A single life doth well with churchmen; for charity will hardly water the ground, where it must first fill a pool. It is indifferent for judges and magistrates; for if they be facile and corrupt, you shall have a servant, five times worse than a wife. For soldiers, I find the generals commonly in their hortatives, put men in mind of their wives and children; and I think the despising of marriage amongst the Turks, maketh the vulgar soldier more base.

 

Order:

B→

41→

42→

43→

44→

45→

F

 

Sample 3

Directions: You are going to read a text about the tips on books, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Man may usually be known by the books he reads as well as by the company he keeps; for there is a companionship of books as well as of men; and one should always live in the best company, whether it be of books or of men.

 

[41]A good book may be among the best of friends.

[42]Men often discover their affinity to each other by the love they have each for a book.

[43]A good book is often the best urn(瓮) of a life enshrining(铭记) the best that life could think out;

[44]Books possess an essence of immortality.

[45]Books introduce us into the best society they bring us into the presence of the greatest minds that have ever lived.

[A]We hear what they said and did; we see them as if they were really alive; we sympathize with them, enjoy with them, grieve with them; their experience becomes ours, and we feel as if we were in a measure actors with them in the scenes which they describe.

[B]The great and good do not die even in this world. Embalmed in books, their spirits walk abroad. The book is a living voice. It is an intellect to which one still listens. Hence we ever remain under the influence of the great men of old. The imperial intellects of the world are as much alive now as they were ages ago.

[C]There is an old proverb, “Love me, love my dog.” But there is more wisdom in this:“Love me, love my book.” The book is a truer and higher bond of union. Men can think, feel, and sympathize with each other through their favorite author. They live in him together, and he in them.

[D]They are by far the most lasting products of human effort. Temples and statues decay, but books survive. Time is of no account with great thoughts, which are as fresh today as when they first passed through their author’s minds, ages ago. What was then said and thought still speaks to us as vividly as ever from the printed page. The only effect of time has been to sift out the bad products; for nothing in literature can long survive but what is really good.

[E]For the world of a man’s life is, for the most part, but the world of his thoughts. Thus the best books are treasuries of good words, the golden thoughts, which, remembered and cherished, become our constant companions and comforters. “They are never alone,” said Sir Philip Sidney,“that are accompanied by noble thoughts.”

[F]It is the same today that it always was, and it will never change. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness; amusing and instructing us in youth, and comforting and consoling us in age.

Sample 4

Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Nowadays, as the developments of society progress forward, especially the achievement in the economy and technology, but more and more problems appear. Among these problems, what is the worst belongs to the area of environment.

[A] It is futile to adjust to the chemicals.

[B] The history of life on earth has been a history of interaction between living things and their surroundings.

[C] We have subjected enormous numbers of people to contact with these poisons, without their consent and often without their knowledge.

[D] During the past quarter century the power to influence the nature has not only become increasingly great but it has changed in character(性质).

[E] The rapidity of change follows the impetuous pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature.

[F] It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth.

 

41The new products come from our laboratories in an endless stream; almost five hundred annually find their way into actual use in the United States alone. Among them are many that are used in man’s war against nature. Since the mid 1940’s over 200 basic chemicals have been created for use in killing insects, weeds, and other organisms described as “pests.”

 

42Given time not in years but in millennia life adjusts, and a balance has been reached. But in the modern world there is no time.

 

43The most alarming of all man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable. In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world the very nature of its life. Chemicals sprayed on croplands or forests or gardens lie long in soil, entering into living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death.

 

44To a large extent, the physical form and the habits of the earth’s vegetation and its animal life have been molded by the environment. Considering the whole span of earthly time, the opposite effect, in which life actually modifies its surroundings, has been relatively slight. Only in the present century has one species man acquired significant power to alter the nature of his world.

 

45Radiation is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals are the synthetic5 creations of man’s inventive mind, having no counterparts in nature.

 

Part C

Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on  ANSWER SHET 2.(10 points)

People born in the autumn live longer than those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older, according to an Austrian scientist.(46) Using census data for more than one million people in Austria, Denmark and Australia, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in the northern German town of Rostock found the month of birth was related to life expectancy over the age of 50. Seasonal differences in what mothers ate during pregnancy, and infections occurring at different times of the year could both have an impact on the health of a newborn baby and could influence its life expectancy in older age. (47)“A mother giving birth in spring spends the last phase of her pregnancy in winter, when she will eat less vitamins than in summer,” said Gabriele Doblhammer, one of a team of scientists who carried out the research. (48)“When she stops breastfeeding and starts giving her baby normal food, it’s in the hot weeks of summer when babies are prone to infections of the digestive system.” In Austria, adults born in autumn (October-December) lived about seven months longer than those born in spring (April-June), and in Denmark adults with birthdays in autumn outlived those born in spring by about four months. (49)In the southern hemisphere, the picture was similar. Adults born in the Australian autumn—the European spring—lived about four months longer than those born in the Australian spring. (50)The study focused on people born at the beginning of the 20th century, using death certificates and census data. Although nutrition at all times of the year has improved since then, the seasonal pattern persists, Doblhammer said.

 

Section Ⅲ Writing

51. Directions:

You have missed a date of your friend, now you have to write a letter for appologization in about 100 words. and do not need to write the address, you should use the name Li Ming.

52. Directions:

Now more people enjoy buying lottery tickets. Study the following picture carefully and write an article on the topic of Quality Control and Marketing. In your article, you should cover the following points:

(1)describe the phenomenon;

(2)analyze the phenomenon and give your comment on it.

You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

 

Answers:

1-5     BDCAA   6-10  CDBBC  11-15  ADDBA  16-20  CADBA   21-25   DABAD   26-30   CDBCC     

31-35 DBCCC  36-40 ADDCD  41-45  FDGEB  46-50   EDGCA  51-55   FGEDA  56-60   FDBEA

 

  

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